Surfaces: decisive players involved in heterogeneous processes in environmental and atmospheric sciences

       The aims of this environmental and atmospheric research activity involving ‘surfaces’ as a generic entity are two-fold. First, the nanostructure and surface composition of either anthropogenic or natural aerosols are characterized to determine the nature, and assess the amount of targeted molecular compounds making up their surfaces, e.g. aromatics, metals, sulfur/oxygen-bearing compounds. This information is paramount to better understanding their atmospheric evolution (e.g. aging, activity as condensation nuclei), giving insights into their overall impact on the environment, and potentially providing guidance to policy makers for the measurement and regulation of particle emissions. Second, because such aerosol surfaces will evolve in the atmosphere, potentially encountering humid air parcels, studies are undertaken to assess their role in the formation of artificial cirrus clouds resulting from ice nucleation processes occurring at their surface, and hence indirectly resulting from human activity.

The kick off of the MERMOSE (2012-2015) and LABEX CaPPA projects (2012-2019) partially supported and oriented our research towards the study of exhaust particles (soot) stemming from different reactors (e.g. laboratory burners, aeronautics, light- and heavy-duty vehicle engines), with the objective of relating their surface composition and nanostructure characteristics to operating points (fuel, engine speed, etc.) and particle origin (fuel, additives, mechanical wear, etc.). Previously, a PHC "Amadeus" grant (2010-2011) had set the premises of nucleation experiments in immersion mode, i.e. when the particle is immersed in a water droplet, and proved the microstructure and surface composition of selected biological aerosols to be significant parameters influencing ice nucleation activity. Since then, during this 5-year period (2013-2018), we built on these former research prospects in both activities.

First, our continuous instrumental development effort to improve the resolution, selectivity or sensitivity of the various analytical methods used for surface characterization (e.g. diversification of ionization schemes of a two-step laser mass spectrometer - L2MS) was accompanied by the integration of a new high-resolution mass spectrometer into the pre-existing multi-wavelength laser desorption / ionization platform. These tools have been especially implemented for the study of soot particles originating from projects studying: laboratory flames (LABEX CaPPA and CPER CLIMIBIO projects, in collaboration with PC2A Laboratory (UMR8522) in the context of the Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches Lasers et Applications – CERLA) [Faccinetto, 2015], aircraft engines (MERMOSE) [Parent, 2016], and vehicle engines (BIOTOX project, collaboration with Czech Republic & Russian Federation) [Popovicheva, 2017]. Our expertise in the field of surface composition analysis supported our joining the European H2020 PEMs4Nano project (2016-19) that aims to deepen the understanding, measurement and regulation of particle emissions below 23 nm, and the national LEFE program (CNRS-INSU) on secondary organic aerosols. A comprehensive protocol for chemical analysis of flame combustion emissions by secondary ion mass spectrometry has been proposed. This study [Irimiea et al., 2018] is expected to become a reference for the future analyses of soot particle composition by mass spectrometry. It has been recently highlighted by being selected to make the cover of the Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry journal (vol. 32, 2018, see Fig. 1). Also, our partnerships branched out to geological applications through the ANR JCJC M6Fossils project (P.I. Kevin Lepôt, LOG Laboratory, U. Lille), where efforts are currently being made to build a unique setup capable of micrometer resolution for in-situ analyses of microfossils using a low fragmentation scheme for organic compounds identification. A new international collaboration with the USA (Dr. Christopher Bennett, Univ. Central Florida, invited prof. summer 2017) was launched in the context of the NASA ROSES Emerging Worlds solicitation, where our proficiency in surface analysis and instrumental capabilities will aid in the in-situ characterization of the native state of the organic components present in meteorites, with a focus on understanding the interplay between temperature, mineral composition, and the state of amino acids/peptides within these meteorites.

The second activity has evolved to assessing the ice nucleation activity of aerosols in deposition mode, i.e. directly from vapor deposition. The new instrumental setup (IDroNES) implemented in our laboratory (started in 2014) for this study is of a unique kind in France: it combines microscopy and spectroscopy techniques to monitor nucleation events in a pressure-temperature-humidity controlled chamber. It has been tested on soot particles; to date no clear consensus appears in the literature as to their ice nucleation activity, them being very complex materials with great chemical and morphological variabilities depending upon their origin. Supported by the LABEX CaPPA and CPER CLIMIBIO projects, this activity produced first results at the end of this quinquennial. In-lab optical methods and correlative analytical techniques are used to assess how a soot particles’ activity relates to its physico-chemical properties. A growing attention to our nucleation activities has been stimulated by our active presence in the European and UK nucleation networks through invited and contributed talks, and posters (Ice Nucleation Research Unit, ESF research networking Program on the Micro-Dynamics of Ice, Atmospheric Ice particles session at EGU), and the organization of a workshop dedicated to nucleation events bringing together researchers from different communities (theoreticians and experimentalists in combustion, environment, and astrochemistry (Atelier GDR EMIE-SUIE, May 2018)).

Future prospects are of three kinds: (i) continuing on engaging our solid know-how in surface science, carbon-bearing aerosols, and nucleation through new ANR projects (e.g. UNREAL, P.I. I-K Ortega, ONERA, under 2nd phase evaluation, 2018 project call). Cross-comparison experiments regarding the ice nucleation activity (INA) of aerosols in both deposition and immersion modes will also be undertaken as it is still lacking from the literature since distinct instruments are used to do so and are rarely available at the same time or used on the same samples. A remaining challenge will be to explore the INA in different modes (ex: immersion versus deposition) on well-characterized aerosol surrogates to get better insights on which nucleation modes prevails and how sensitive and accurate are the techniques to evaluate the INA. Our research will be oriented on both anthropogenic and biological aerosols within the CaPPA 2 project (ii) maintaining our ongoing international partnerships and applying for dedicated grants for support (e.g. Programme Chercheurs Fulbright-Hauts-de-France, 2019-2020), and (iii) expanding our applications to secondary organic aerosols, biogenic particles, and organic residues produced in agriculture through recent collaborations established within the LEFE (CNRS-INSU) program with INRA ECOSYS (R. Ciuraru).

Gas hydrates: natural occurrences as potential natural gas energy resources, towards the implementation of such environmentally friendly structures for gas separation and capture processes

Since 2007 we have been investigating molecular-scale properties of natural gas hydrates collected in African and Norwegian margins (collaborative work with Ifremer (Brest) on the EU HERMES project) to better define their conditions of formation, their stability, structure and composition. We additionally carried on a proof of concept study for the capture of CO2 from flue gas analogs using clathrates (ANR SECOHYA 2007-2011). This activity has considerably developed since 2015.

Our expertise in molecular scale techniques coupled to high pressure / low pressure reactors to characterize gas hydrates is well established and resulted in our joining the EU-COST action ES1405 MIGRATE (2015-2018), which gathers the expertise of a large number of European research groups (~20 laboratories from 14 different European countries) and industrial partners. The aim is to promote the development of multidisciplinary knowledge on the potential for gas hydrates to be an economically feasible and environmentally sound energy resource. Two outcomes result from this action: the structuration of our national work force and expertise on gas hydrate research to weight in the European landscape and the reinforcement of European collaborations in this field. These two outcomes concretize themselves, first, at the national level with the launch of a GdR 2026 "Gaz Hydrates", created in 2018 for the period 2018-2022 and gathering ~84 researchers from 28 laboratories in France. B. Chazallon is a member of the scientific board in the workgroup "clathrates in astrophysics". This initiative was accompanied by the publication of a book (Wiley-publishing) on the fundamentals, characterization and modeling of gas hydrates written by French researchers’ experts in gas hydrate research [CHA, 2017]. The second outcome is the strengthening of our European cooperation, that resulted in our responding to two European Training Network (ETN) project calls (2019-2022) that will be deposited in January 2019. These ETN projects will propose to optimize and combine different applications for gas hydrates in industrial processes to improve their efficiency and make them economically viable [CHA, 2014]. With an international recognition in this field, our group is actively involved in the development of this new project. As well, B. Chazallon will engage in the co-organization of a workshop on the fundamental properties of gas hydrates applied to geosciences, astrophysics and chemical engineering in 2019 in the USA (TSRC workshop Telluride), where selected leading scientist in gas hydrate research (experimentalists and theoreticians) will be invited.

A new direction has emerged in this evaluated period through our involvement in the ANR project MI2C (2016-2020) and the co-supervision of a PhD student in collaboration with the ISM-Bordeaux. This project encompasses a combination of state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental innovative and challenging simulations to address fundamental issues on the physical and chemical processes involved in gas trapping (and release) of mixed clathrate hydrates formed in mineral media. Several experiments are currently leaded on large instrument facilities (ILL-Grenoble, ANSTO-Sydney). The complementary skills of the various partners (ISM Bordeaux, UTINAM Besançon, Institut Carnot de Bourgogne and PhLAM) is leading to a strong consortium able to address questions on new recovery processes of natural gas hydrates and/or determine new sustainable ways of trapping a specific gas from a gas mixture. Within this consortium we showed that high resolution Raman spectroscopy could reveal guests’ distribution in nitrogen clathrates, which constituted a significant breakthrough and opened new perspectives in hydrate research, as these compounds are widely used in gas separation techniques or recovery of methane from natural gas [PET, 2017] (IF > 4.5).

A third emerging direction concerns the investigation of gas capture and separation processes efficiency in steel industry, using clathrates. This work takes place within the EU project Interreg CARBON2VALUE (2017-2019), which involves 6 partners (ARCELOR MITTAL-Belgium, Dow-Benelux, Lanza Tech UK, ISPT Netherland, POMOV Belgium, PhLAM UL France). The aim is to prove a potential reduction of CO2 emissions (30-45%) across the major energy intensive steel sector using an innovative technology to separate CO2 streams and valorize CO and potentially CO2 in the future. For the first time, a cost efficient breakthrough solution will be used for the separation of CO from N2 by gas hydrates and will be proposed for implementation at a pilot scale in a line designed to treat separated streams of carbon-rich gases. This activity is also closely related and supported by the CPER CLIMIBIO (2015-2020, WP5) for the fundamental study of CO2 separation in thermal power plants (3-15% CO2). The objectives are here to gain a better understanding of parameters that govern selectivity and capture efficiency in clathrates, and how non-equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics could improve such performance parameters. Already one paper has been published showing the first quantitative stand-alone Raman investigations of CO2 separation from flue gases in Chem. Eng. J. (IF > 6, Fig. 2).


Laser Mass Spectrometry for Real-Time In Vivo Molecular Analysis

The period 2013-2018 was marked by the development of a research axis initiated in 2010 between our group and the biology laboratory PRISM (INSERM U 1192, Lille). Its objective is to design original tools for biological and medical diagnostics, based on the coupling of laser ablation and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. The first steps of this research axis are the development and optimization of two devices simultaneously improving sensitivity and spatial resolution of MALDI analyzes: the silicon masks [DIO, 2014] (IF>6) and the laser induced post-desolvation technique [DIO, 2017], respectively. It continues with the implementation of a new tool for tissue micro-sampling by laser ablation at ambient pressure and temperature [FAT 2015] (IF>4). The main challenge is to propose a device compatible with in-vivo analysis under an intraoperative context. Currently, only the Intelligent Knife (iKnife) system allowed real-time monitoring during surgery by collecting aerosol released during tissue excision with an electric scalpel or bipolar forceps [Balog, J. et al.. Sci Transl Med 5, 194ra193 (2013)]. In this context, we have developed a new instrument (called SpiderMass) for in vivo and real-time analysis based on the resonant laser ablation of the water molecules naturally present in most biological samples. The generated ions are transported by aspiration to the MS analyzer. The retrieved molecular patterns (metabolites and lipids) are specific to the cell phenotypes and benign versus cancer regions of patient biopsies can be easily differentiated. We also demonstrated by analyzing human skin that SpiderMass can be used under in vivo conditions (Fig. 3) with minimal damage and pain compared to the iKnife system. Therefore, it should provide a solution that can help fast intraoperative decisions. Furthermore, it can also be used for real-time drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) analysis or food safety related topics [FAT, 2016] (IF>4). These preliminary results, obtained with a first prototype, enabled the filing of a patent (2014, ext. PCT 2016 [SAL, 2014]) and the support by grants from ANR Santé Bien-être (Reality’MS, 2014-2018) and Inserm PhysiCancer (SpiderMass, 2015-2018). Its valorization started in 2015 when our project was awarded ‘best breakthrough innovation’ by the MATWIN international board that gathered academic institutions and international industrial leaders in pharmacology and oncology (GSK, Roche, Sanofi, Merck, Pierre Fabre, Bayer Health Care, Novartis…). It continues today through the SATT Nord maturation program (2016-2018). In this context, we have developed a second prototype, portable and fibered, currently being routinely used on the project. We also extend its capability to detect and analyze peptides and proteins [FAT 2018a] (IF>6). Our Technique Readiness Level (TRL) has since risen from 1 to 6.

The next step is to test the device in a surgery room in veterinary clinic Oncovet (Villeneuve d’Ascq). For this purpose, benchmark studies to establish molecular profiles banks associated with a pathology type – dog sarcoma – together with the development of a real-time query interface have been successfully initiated in collaboration with Oncovet and the Department of Surgery and Cancer of the Imperial College (London) (article under review in Cancer Cell (IF>27)). The construction of a human pathology (ovarian cancer) grade classification model is also undertaken in collaboration with the Cancer Center Oscar Lambret and the Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre (Lille). In the meantime, we plan to outspread the technique’s applications to other fields that could benefit from it:  pharmaceutical and environmental science, as well as geology [FAT, 2018b].

The objective of the project is a commercial exploitation of the device, through the creation of a start-up. First positive contacts with technology incubators and investors have been made in this direction. Partnerships with companies like Pierre Fabre (dermatology) or Opotek (laser sources) and Waters (MS analyzer) have also been established.


Complex dynamics of laser-produced transient plasmas

This activity has been developed by the ANATRAC group in collaboration with external partners (France, Romania, Czech Republic). Transient plasmas are produced by high-fluence laser ablation of solid targets in various temporal regimes (femto, pico, nanosecond). While in 2007-2013 the main accent was put on applications in materials science (plasma space propulsion, synthesis of thin films and nanoparticles of chalcogenides, ferrites etc. for optoelectronics or sensors), in the currently evaluated period the focus has progressively moved to fundamental studies to better understand the complex space-time dynamics of the generated plasmas. Our group was among the first ones to experimentally observe peculiar phenomena in these objects (oscillations, plume splitting etc.) and to propose a theoretical interpretation in the frame of an original fractal model developed in collaboration with Romanian colleagues. We have reached international recognition in this field: an invited review paper was published in 2017 on the subject [Focsa 2017], C. Focsa served as Guest Editor for the journals Applied Surface Science (2016-2017, IF3.39) and Complexity (2017-2018, IF4.62, special issue “Fractal-type Dynamical Behaviors of Complex Systems”), he organized and chaired the symposium “Laser-Materials Interactions for Tailoring Future Applications” (150+ participants) in the frame of the European Materials Research Society (EMRS) 2016 Spring Meeting in Lille. He is a member of the EMRS Board of Delegates and Workgroup “Industry”. A total of 16 papers was published on the evaluated period, 7 of them in journals with IF>3, several invited talks were given. This research area was supported by two international projects (PHC Brancusi France/Romania and PHC Barrande France/Czech Republic, 2013-2014) and a Bourse du Gouvernement Français (BGF) for a cotutelle thesis (FR/RO, defense Oct 2017). Another PhD thesis (100% PhLAM) was defended in 2013. The University of Lille strongly supported this activity by 15 months of invited professors (6 colleagues invited) over the evaluated period. Unfortunately, other submitted projects (ANRInternational FR/RO, PICS FR/RO, 2xANR PhLAM/Horiba/Ecole Polytechnique) were not funded. The success of the other two research themes (environment and bio/medicine with 11 ongoing funded projects) in the ANATRAC group naturally encourages the allocation of internal human resources to these activities. The plasma/materials studies will therefore continue mainly based on external collaboration support. This activity is however complement to the other two research directions (e.g. quest for the optimum material for biological applications, invited talk EMRS 2018), and possible common interests can be found internally with the Photonics and DYSCO research groups. An exciting perspective for the study of the very high intensity laser – matter interactions will be offered in the next period by the opening of the ELI (Extreme Light Infrastructure) sources in Bucharest and Prague. We have contacts with both Romanian and Czech colleagues involved in these projects: the development of future research ideas in this framework is very appealing, but will be subject to human force availability.


The use of mass spectrometry to obtain a complete and accurate image of sample chemical composition (especially for species of high molecular weight - m ≥ 200 u) requires high mass-resolution instruments (Δm ≥ 10.000). However, the coupling of such a spectrometer to laser desorption and ionization sources, as developed and optimized within the group to avoid any fragmentation, is particularly delicate (because of the initial species distributions in position and velocity inherent in the desorption stage). This barrier has recently been removed by the original instrumental development of a high mass-resolution L2MS thanks to the pooling of our laser skills and the ion optics expertise of FASMATECH SA. The system has been fully operational since November 2017.

To further increase the versatility of the instrument, in collaboration with the same company and within the framework of the ANR JCJC M6Fossils, we are finalizing a new source adding the ability to map the sample surface from the molecular composition point of view with a spatial resolution of less than 5 microns. This unprecedented tool, a high mass-resolution μL2MS, should eventually be used as an analytical platform for various scientific communities (geology, planetology, biology, etc.). First tests are already planned in the context of the identification of molecular markers associated with microfossils (ANR JCJC M6Fossils) and the characterization of the organic matter in chondrites (in collaboration with Christopher Bennett, Univ. Central Florida, USA).



Irimiea, C., Faccinetto, A., Carpentier, C, Ortega, I.-K., Nuns, N., Therssen, E., Desgroux, P., Focsa, C.

A comprehensive protocol for chemical analysis of flame combustion emissions by secondary ion mass spectrometry

(2018) Rapid Communication in Mass Spectrometry, 3, pp. 1015–1025. DOI:10.1002/rcm.8133


Michoulier, E., Noble, J. A., Simon, A., Mascetti, J., Toubin, C.

Adsorption of PAHs on interstellar ice viewed by classical molecular dynamics

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20, 8753-8764 (2018)


Michoulier, E., BenAmor, N., Rapacioli, M., Noble, J. A., Mascetti, J., Toubin, C., Simon, A.

Theoretical determination of adsorption and ionisation energies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on water ice

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20, 11941-11953 (2018)


Delhaye, D., Ouf, F.-X., Ferry, D., Ortega, I.K., Penanhoat, O., Peillon, S., Salm, F., Vancassel, X., Focsa, C., Irimiea, C., Harivel, N., Perez, B., Quinton, E., Yon, J., Gaffie, D.

The MERMOSE project: Characterization of particulate matter emissions of a commercial aircraft engine

(2017) Journal of Aerosol Science, 105, pp. 48-63. DOI:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2016.11.018


[Popovicheva, 2017] Popovicheva, O.B., Irimiea, C., Carpentier, Y., Ortega, I.K., Kireeva, E.D., Shonija, N.K., Schwarz, J., Vojtíšek-Lom, M., Focsa, C.

Chemical composition of diesel/biodiesel particulate exhaust by FTIR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry: Impact of fuel and driving cycle

(2017) Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 17 (7), pp. 1717-1734.

DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.04.0127


Parent, P., Laffon, C., Marhaba, I., Ferry, D., Regier, T.Z., Ortega, I.K., Chazallon, B., Carpentier, Y., Focsa, C.

Nanoscale characterization of aircraft soot: A high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron and near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy study

(2016) Carbon, 101, pp. 86-100.

DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2016.01.040


Ortega, I.K., Donahue, N.M., Kurtén, T., Kulmala, M., Focsa, C., Vehkamäki, H.

Can Highly Oxidized Organics Contribute to Atmospheric New Particle Formation?

(2016) Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 120 (9), pp. 1452-1458. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b07427


Ortega, I. K., Delhaye D., Ouf, F.-X., Ferry, D., Focsa, C., Irimiea, C., Carpentier, Y., Chazallon, B., Parent, P., Laffon, C., Penanhoat, O., Harivel, N., Gaffié, D., Vancassel, X.

Measuring Non-Volatile Particle Properties in the Exhaust of an Aircraft Engine

(2016) Aerospace Lab Journal 11, 1-8


La Cruz, N.L., Qasim, D., Abbott-Lyon, H., Pirim, C., McKee, A.D., Orlando, T., Gull, M., Lindsay, D., Pasek, M.A.

The evolution of the surface of the mineral schreibersite in prebiotic chemistry

(2016) Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 18 (30), pp. 20160-20167.

DOI: 10.1039/c6cp00836d


[Faccinetto, 2015] : Faccinetto, A., Focsa, C., Desgroux, P., Ziskind, M.

Progress toward the Quantitative Analysis of PAHs Adsorbed on Soot by Laser Desorption/Laser Ionization/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

(2015) Environmental Science and Technology, 49 (17), pp. 10510-10520.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b02703


Pummer, B.G., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Chazallon, B., Facq, S., Lendl, B., Whitmore, K., Grothe, H.

Chemistry and morphology of dried-up pollen suspension residues

(2013) Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 44 (12), pp. 1654-1658.

DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4395


Facq, S., Danède, F., Chazallon, B.

Ice particle crystallization in the presence of ethanol: An in situ study by Raman and X-ray diffraction

(2013) Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 117 (23), pp. 4916-4927.

DOI: 10.1021/jp4015614


Carpentier, Y., Pino, T., Bréchignac, P.

R2PI spectroscopy of aromatic molecules produced in an ethylene-rich flame

(2013) Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 117 (39), pp. 10092-10104. DOI: 10.1021/jp400913n


BOOK CHAPTER: Giesen, T., Rice, C., Maier, J., Carpentier, Y., Rouillé, G., Steglich, M., Jäger, C., Henning, T., Huisken, F., Oomens, J., Pirali, O., Tielens, A.G.G.M., Müller, H.S.P.

Molecular Spectroscopy

(2014) Laboratory Astrochemistry: From Molecules through Nanoparticles to Grains, pp. 13-108.

DOI: 10.1002/9783527653133.ch2

Gas Hydrates

Chazallon, B., Pirim, C.

Selectivity and CO2 capture efficiency in CO2-N2 clathrate hydrates investigated by in-situ Raman spectroscopy

(2018) Chemical Engineering Journal, 342, pp. 171-183.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2018.01.116


Petuya, C., Damay, F., Chazallon, B., Bruneel, J.-L., Desmedt, A.

Guest Partitioning and Metastability of the Nitrogen Gas Hydrate

(2018) Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 122 (1), pp. 566-573.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b10151


BOOK CHAPTER: Chazallon, B., Noble, J. A., Desmedt A.,

Spectroscopy   of   Gas   Hydrates:   From Fundamental Aspects to Chemical Engineering, Geophysical and Astrophysical Applications, in Gas Hydrates:  Fundamentals,  Characterization  and  Modeling;  Broseta,  D.,  Ruffine,  L., Desmedt, A., Eds; Wiley−ISTE: London 2017, Vol. 1, 63-112


Chazallon, B., Ziskind, M., Carpentier, Y., Focsa, C.

CO2 Capture using semi-clathrates of quaternary ammonium salt: Structure change induced by CO2 and N2 enclathration

(2014) Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 118 (47), pp. 13440-13452.

DOI: 10.1021/jp507789z


Ruffine, L., Caprais, J.-C., Bayon, G., Riboulot, V., Donval, J.-P., Etoubleau, J., Birot, D., Pignet, P., Rongemaille, E., Chazallon, B., Grimaud, S., Adamy, J., Charlou, J.-L., Voisset, M.

Investigation on the geochemical dynamics of a hydrate-bearing pockmark in the Niger Delta

(2013) Marine and Petroleum Geology, 43, pp. 297-309.

DOI: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2013.01.008



PATENT: [SAL, 2014]: Salzet, M., Fournier, I., Focsa, C., Ziskind, M., Fatou, B, Wisztorski, M.

“Device For Real-Time In Vivo Molecular Analysis”

WO2016046748 A1 (2014, ext PCT 2016)


[FAT, 2018a]: Fatou, B., Ziskind, M., Saudemont, P., Quanico, J., Focsa, C., Salzet, M., Fournier, I.

Remote Atmospheric Pressure Infrared Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Proteins

Molecular & Cellular Proteomics (in press. 2018)

DOI: 10.1074/mcp.TIR117.000582


[FAT, 2018b]: Fatou, B, Saudemont,P., Duhamel, M., Ziskind, M., Focsa, C., Salzet, M., Fournier, I.

Real time and in vivo Pharmaceutical and Environmental studies with the SpiderMass instrument

J. Biotechnol. (in press. 2018)


[DIO, 2017]: Diologent, L., Bolbach, G., Focsa, C., Ziskind, M., Fournier, I.

Laser induced post-desolvation of MALDI clusters

(2017) International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 416, pp. 29-36.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2016.12.005


[FAT, 2016]: Fatou, B., Saudemont, P., Leblanc, E., Vinatier, D., Mesdag, V., Wisztorski, M., Focsa, C., Salzet, M., Ziskind, M., Fournier, I.

In vivo Real-Time Mass Spectrometry for Guided Surgery Application

(2016) Scientific Reports, 6, art. no. 25919

DOI: 10.1038/srep25919


[FAT, 2015]: Fatou, B., Wisztorski, M., Focsa, C., Salzet, M., Ziskind, M., Fournier, I.

Substrate-Mediated Laser Ablation under Ambient Conditions for Spatially-Resolved Tissue Proteomics

(2015) Scientific Reports, 5, art. no. 18135

DOI: 10.1038/srep18135


[DIO, 2014]: Diologent, L., Franck, J., Wisztorski, M., Treizebre, A., Focsa, C., Fournier, I., Ziskind, M.

On the origin of increased sensitivity and mass resolution using silicon masks in MALDI

(2014) Analytical Chemistry, 86 (3), pp. 1404-1413. Cited 1 time.

DOI: 10.1021/ac401329r


1.     G. Bulai, O. Rusu, M. M. Cazacu, F. Tudorache, B. Chazallon, C. Focsa, S. Gurlui, “Structural, Magnetic and Humidity Sensing Properties of Rare Earth Doped Cobalt Ferrite Thin Films Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition”, J. Ovonic Res. 14, 119-128 (2018)

2.     P Nica, S Gurlui, M Osiac, M Agop, M Ziskind, C. Focsa, “Investigation of Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasma from Various Metallic Targets using Langmuir Probe Characteristic”, Phys. Plasmas 24, 103119 (2017)

3.    C. Focsa, S. Gurlui, P. Nica, M. Agop, M. Ziskind, “Plume splitting and oscillatory behavior in transient plasmas generated by high-fluence laser ablation in vacuum”, Appl. Surf. Sci., 424, 299-309 (2017) (review paper)

4.    BOOK CHAPTER: P.E. Nica, S.A. Irimiciuc, M. Agop, S. Gurlui, M. Ziskind, C. Focsa, “Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Dynamics of Transient Plasmas Generated by Laser Ablation in Various Temporal Regimes”, in “Laser Ablation - From Mechanisms to Applications”, Ed. T. Itina, InTech, Zagreb, Croatia, pp. 2-30 (2017). DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70759

5.     S. A. Irimiciuc, S. Gurlui, G. Bulai, P. Nica, M. Agop, C. Focsa, “Langmuir Probe Investigation of Transient Plasmas Generated by Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Several Metals: Influence of the Target Physical Properties on the Plume Dynamics”, Appl. Surf. Sci. 417, 108-118 (2017)

6.     S. Irimiciuc, R. Boidin, G. Bulai, S. Gurlui, P. Nemec, V. Nazabal, C. Focsa, “Laser ablation of (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x chalcogenide glasses: Influence of the target composition on the plasma plume dynamics”, Appl. Surf. Sci. 418, 594-600 (2017)

7.     S. A. Irimiciuc, S. Gurlui, P. Nica, C. Focsa, M. Agop, “A compact non-differential approach for modeling

8.     G. Bulai, I. Dumitru, M. Pinteala, C. Focsa, S. Gurlui, “Magnetic Nanoparticles Generated by Laser Ablation in Liquid”, Dig. J. Nanomat. Biostruct. 11, 283-293 (2016)

9.     G. Bulai, S. Gurlui, O. F. Caltun, C. Focsa, “Pure and rare earth doped cobalt ferrite laser ablation: Space and time resolved optical emission spectroscopy”, Dig. J. Nanomat. Biostruct. 10, 1043-1053 (2015)

10.   M. Olivier, P. Němec, G. Boudebs, R. Boidin, C. Focsa, V. Nazabal, “Photosensitivity of pulsed laser deposited Ge-Sb-Se thin films”, Opt. Mater. Express, 5, 781-793 (2015)

11.   S. Irimiciuc, M. Agop, P. Nica, S. Gurlui, D. Mihăileanu, S. Toma, C. Focsa, “Dispersive Effects in Laser Ablation Plasmas”, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 53, 116202 (2014)

12.   G. Pompilian, G. Dascalu, I. Mihaila, S. Gurlui, M. Olivier, P. Nemec, V. Nazabal, N. Cimpoesu, C. Focsa, ”Pulsed Laser Deposition of Rare Earth Doped Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Chalcogenide Thin Films”, Appl. Phys. A, 117, 197-205 (2014)

13.   L. Leontie, I. Evtodiev, N. Spalatu, M. Caraman, S. Evtodiev, O. Racovet, M. Girtan, C. Focsa, “Optical and photosensitive properties of lamellar nanocomposites obtained by Cd intercalation of GaTe”, J. Alloy. Compd., 584, 542 (2014)

14.   G. Dascalu, G. Pompilian, B. Chazallon, O. Caltun, S. Gurlui, C. Focsa, “Femtosecond Pulsed Laser Deposition of Cobalt Ferrite Thin Films”, Appl. Surf. Sci., 278, 38 (2013)

15.   L. Balika, C. Focsa, S. Gurlui, S. Pellerin, N. Pellerin, D. Pagnon, M. Dudeck, “Laser ablation in a running Hall Effect Thruster for space propulsion”, Appl. Phys. A, 112, 123 (2013)

16.   G. Pompilian, S. Gurlui, P. Nemec, V. Nazabal, M. Ziskind, C. Focsa, “Plasma Diagnostics in Pulsed Laser Deposition of GaLaS Chalcogenides”, Appl. Surf. Sci., 278, 352 (2013)

17.   G. Dascalu, G. Pompilian, B. Chazallon, V. Nica, O. Caltun, S. Gurlui, C. Focsa, “Rare earth doped cobalt ferrite thin films deposited by PLD”, Appl. Phys. A, 110, 915 (2013)